busy_old_fool’s blog

将来は富山に住みたいものです。

メモ:自作の英詩(随時更新)

 1.

 

The flower of love fades before love fades;

The nectar of friendship anon turns sour.

Therefore, my soul, fail not to seize the days,

And deny me not, when thou'rt in flower.

Time that this way comes is a wickéd thing

And he devours still our loving leisure;

So let thee now thy coyness away fling,

Or senescence will rob thee of thy pleasure.

Had we forty thousand years to embrace,

They would not, with all their love's quantity,

Make up the sum of this evanescent space,

The fineness of which lies in quality.

     My love, I cuddle thee closely all the more

     For I know thy beauty isn't mine e'ermore.

 

2.

 

Fair cruelty, thinkest thou thy beauty

Be so eternal as thy innocent soul?

Not so, I must say, for mortality

Any fair of what validity renderth foul.

Thy soul also shall no God's honour win.

An denied, I shan't in this world linger;

Therefore, fair maid, thou must definitely sin

Of either fornication or murder.

Even thou'rt predestined, my love, to death

And cannot with thy Lord attain union,

Still we can blend our sweetest panting breath.

If so, shall we sport and play on and on?

     An thou conceiv'st, thou shall not damnéd be;

     Thy endless fairness in pictures of thee.

 

 

<ひとこと>

おかしな点、誤りなど御座いましたらご指摘いただければ幸いです。

 

翻訳:'Love's Alchemy' by John Donne

愛の錬金術*1

 

ジョン・ダン

 

 

愛の鉱脈を私より深く掘った者たちは

いずこに核となる歓びがあるかを口にする。

           私は愛し、手に入れ、語らった。

だが、老いてしまうまで愛し、手に入れ、語らおうとも

私はその隠れた神秘を見出すことは無いだろう。

            ああ、これは全て詐欺ではないか。

ちょうど未だ錬金術師の誰もエクシリルを手に入れていないのに

            実験のついでに、もし錬金術師が

            芳香性の物質や薬効のあるものを手にすれば

妊娠したように丸い蒸留器*2に栄誉を授ける。

      そのように愛する者たちは豊かで長い歓びを夢想するが

      手にするのはまるで冬のように寒い、短い夏の夜*3なのだ*4

 

私たちの安楽、私たちの繁栄、私たちの名誉、それに私たちの日を

こんな価値のない泡の影に費やそうか?

            愛というのは、私の下僕であれ

新郎役という侮辱を短い間耐え忍べば*5

私が手にできる幸福をみな手に入にできるというだけなのか*6

            「結婚するのは体じゃない、心なんだ。

夫が妻の内面を天使のように美しいと気づくんだ」

            なんて事を誓う、愛で一杯の野郎は

            無作法で耳障りな楽人たちの演奏にも

まさに天球の調べ*7を聞いたと誓うだろう。

      女に心を期待するな。せいぜい頑張って

      愛らしさと機知があるくらいさ。彼女たちはミイラ*8なんだ、それも憑かれた。

 

原文

www.poetryfoundation.org

 

<註>

*1:錬金術は不老長寿の秘薬にして、卑金属を金に変えるというエクシリルを製造する事を目指した学問。ダンが生きたルネサンス期にあってはすでに、似非学問として疑われていた。この詩においてダンは、愛の神秘も錬金術も詐欺だといった口調だが、つまりは愛を極めたかのような口振りでプラトニックな愛ばかりを語る、ペトラルカ以降のマンネリ化した文学的伝統を皮肉っている。

*2:妊娠した(原文でpregnant)という語は、当然人間の生殖を連想させる。

*3:oxymoronといわれる技法。

*4:子供が産まれたら、それはそれで栄誉を得るのでしょうか?

*5:つまり、教会で結婚式を挙げる時の話。

*6:ここの一文では、宮廷風恋愛(courtly love)のような文学的伝統、つまりは上流階級のよりプラトニックな恋愛がより優れた愛だという伝統を踏まえている。

*7:古代ギリシアでは、月や惑星は天球に貼り付けられており、天体の運行とは天球の回転によるものとされた。そして天球が回転する際、天体は数学的比率に従って動くので全体で至上のハーモニーを奏でるとされた。残念なことに、人間の耳には聞こえないそうである。

*8:心がない人形に過ぎない、といいたいのだろう。ただ、ミイラは洋の東西を問わず不老長寿の妙薬とされた。

翻訳:'Sonnet 85' by William Shakespeare

ソネット85番

 

ウィリアム・シェイクスピア

 

 

私の詩神は舌を縛られたので、如才なく沈黙を守っていますが

その間にあなたへの称賛が、豪華な言葉で

お前の美しい顔立ちを記録に留めてゆきます。

黄金の羽ペンと全ての詩神の磨き上げた言葉で。

人が麗しい言葉を記せば、私は麗しい想いを抱き、

そして無学な教会書記さながら、俊秀の手による

美しい筆致で書き上げられた讃美歌すべてに、

いつも「アーメン」と唱えるだけです。

あなたが称えられるのを聞けば「そう、その通りだ」と言い、

最高の賛辞の上に、さらに何かを添えるのです。

ですがそれは私の想いの中にあるのです。だから言葉が後れをとっても、

私のあなたへの愛はほかの何者にも先んじているのです。

 だから他の詩人たちは、その儚い言葉を評価してやりなさい。

 私のことは、無言の想いで評価してください。本当は語っているのですから。

 

原文

Shakespeare's Sonnets

 

この詩についての研究(英語)

busy-old-fool.hatenablog.com

A Study of Shakespeare's 'Sonnet 85': Form and Technique vs. Sentiment / 詩論する詩についての試論:シェイクスピア『ソネット85番』について、詩の技法・形式対感情という側面から(英語)

Sonnet 85’: ‘My tongue-tied muse in manners holds her still’

William Shakespeare

 

My tongue-tied muse in manners holds her still,
While comments of your praise, richly compiled,
Reserve their character with golden quill
And precious phrase by all the muses filed.
I think good thoughts, whilst other write good words,
And like unlettered clerk still cry “Amen”
To every hymn that able spirit affords,
In polished form of well-refinèd pen.
Hearing you praised, I say “'Tis so, ’tis true,”
And to the most of praise add something more;
But that is in my thought, whose love to you,
Though words come hindmost, holds his rank before.
  Then others for the breath of words respect,
  Me for my dumb thoughts, speaking in effect.

 

   Shakespeare’s ‘Sonnet 85’ is inconsistent. This sonnet apparently advocates the superiority of ‘thoughts’ to ‘words’, saying, ‘Then others for the breath of words respect, / Me for my dumb thoughts, speaking in effect.’ (13-14). Here the couplet indicates clearly the binary opposition between ‘words’ and ‘thoughts’. Therefore, the fact that ‘thoughts [are] speaking in effect’ suggests that ‘words’ are not ‘speaking in effect’. The truth is, however, that the poet himself speaks ‘the breath of words’, which is crystallised as this poem. Moreover, though he says, ‘I think good thoughts whilst other write good words’ (5), his poem is undeniably written on paper before us readers. This self-contradiction makes the reader doubt the poet, from which ensues the reader’s scepticism on his superficial meaning. Indeed, the poet’s self-inconsistency seems to generate another: the superiority of ‘words’ to ‘thoughts’. In this paper, the relationship between ‘words’ and ‘thoughts’ is studied, paying attention to the inconsistency between form and content of the poem.
   Before further exploring doubleness of its meaning, it should be pointed out that ‘words’ and ‘thoughts’ in this poem correspond to form and technique, and sentiment respectively. As such expressions like ‘precious phrase by all the muses filed’ (4) and ‘with golden quill’ (3) imply, ‘words’ of other poets referred to in this poem are written in so polished language, which means it is different from our everyday speech. According to Russian Formalist Shklovsky, ‘[t]he technique of art is to make objects “unfamiliar”’ (18). Polished language, then, is what makes objects “unfamiliar” to the reader, and therefore it makes poems poetic. Hence ‘words’ represent form and technique of poetry, or poetic language. On the other hand, ‘thoughts’ represent sentiment of the poet, such as ‘love’ (11). The binary opposition between ‘words’ and ‘thoughts’ is, accordingly, that between technique and sentiment.
   In superficial meaning, the poet is maintaining that sentiment is more profound than form and technique of poetry. He is criticising other poets the poems of whom are empty with lesser sentiment than his, as he alleges ‘[his] love … holds his rank before [all others]’ (11-12). He suggests, in the very expression ‘the breath of words’, the hollowness of their ‘words’, or poetic language. The reader can, indeed, find the poet’s insinuations against poetic language in distortion of rhythm and the metaphors. In lines 2 to 4, he writes,

While comments of your praise, richly compiled,
Reserve thy character with golden quill
And precious phrase by all the muses filed. (2-4)

Here the reader can find iamb twisted in ‘richly compiled’, to be dactyl. When read aloud, the phrase will be pronounced quickly, and the very word ‘richly’ will not be pronounced richly, or magnificently. The phrase sounds, therefore, ironical, implying that thought the ‘comments of your praise’ are luxurious, as words like ‘golden quill’ and ‘muses’ suggest, they are nothing but hollow flattery which do not reflect ‘thy character’. He in lines 6-8 uses ecclesiastical metaphors, likening himself to an ‘unlettered clerk’ and poems of other poets, ‘hymn’:

And like unlettered clerk still cry “Amen”
To every hymn that able spirit affords
In polished form of well-refined pen. (6-8)

   Since hymn is a religious song to praise the God, by analogy, poems of other poets are to praise the poet’s love. The metaphor, however, intimates that even the divinest poems cannot over-praise his lover, just as no hymn can hail the God enough. The poet, who is well aware of such a limit of poetic language, cannot but keep silent—of course, ironically it is the poet who tells the reader this. And by saying, ‘And to the most of praise add something more; / But that is in my thought’ (10-11), he is asserting that his ‘something more’, or sentiment, or love, is not translatable into ‘words’ intact. Therefore, to be true to his sentiment, ‘[his] tongue-tied muse in manners holds her still’ (1). All the same, no sentiment is transmittable without words. Hence, the poet’s dilemma. His agony is such that it is overflowing from the last line, in which the rhythm of sonnet (iambic pentameter) is twisted: ‘Me for my dumb thoughts, speaking in effect’ (14). He is as if praying aloud that his sentiment would transcend words. For him, a poet should not necessarily be eloquent, or skilled in form and technique of poetry, for poetic language is, after all, empty. The rhyming of ‘still’ and ‘quill’ seems to suggest that ostentatious praises are actually quiet and will not reach their lover. Rather, what matters is the sentiment, which may be lost when translated into poetic form and technique. The world of poets’ sentiment is, therefore, richer than that of form and technique of poetry. He, thus, seems to advocate the superiority of sentiment to form and technique.
   The poet, however, is lying. Although he writes, ‘My tongue-tied muse in manners holds her still’, he is undoubtedly writing a sonnet, —and in words ‘richly compiled’. Indeed, he employed, as discussed above, several techniques to criticise other poets, who, according to him, have greater technique and lesser sentiment. His technique can also be seen in very the first line: My tongue-tied muse in manners holds her still. Here the alliteration of m, t and h sounds have high musicality. He is, then, not trustworthy, and it is unclear whether the poet is really thinking he is worse in technique than other poets. Anyway one thing is true. The poet himself is speaking in ‘the breath of words’, that is, form and technique. Then does this mean that the poet’s sentiment expressed in the form of poem is also empty?
This discrepancy between form and the (superficial) meaning is, again, a key to another meaning. But the superiority of sentiment to form and technique is now deconstructed. That is because although the poet insists upon the emptiness of the form and technique of poetry, he, in point of fact, wants his love and the reader to believe that his ‘words’, or his sentiments expressed in the form of sonnet are, at least, not empty. If he does not want that, he does not, in the first place, need to compose such a poem. The form and technique of poetry, therefore, is, albeit written negatively, what brings ‘Sonnet 85’ into existence. This suggests that the form and technique of poetry is, after all, what poetry is all about. All the sentimentalists are not poets. Then, does he mean substantially that form and technique of poetry is superior to sentiment of the poet? Or is he being deliberately obtuse in implying that they can be separated?
   This very idea which sustains that technique and form are the essence of poetry is, the idea dismissed by the poet himself in the superficial meaning. In this poem two completely contradictory opinions are expressed at the same time, and therefore both opinions on poetry cannot be adopted by the reader. ‘Sonnet 85’ puts, in this way, the reader into the labyrinth of form and technique vs. sentiment, and makes the reader think of a question: what is poetry?

 


Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. ‘Sonnet 85’: ‘My tongue-tied muse in manners hold her still’. The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 9 th edn, Vol.B. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt et al. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2012.
Shklovsky, Viktor. ‘Art as Technique’. Literary Theory, An Anthology. Ed. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers , 1998. pp.17-23

翻訳:'Song: To Celia', aka 'Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes' by Ben Jonson

シリアに寄せる歌*1

 

ベン・ジョンソン

 

 

あなたの目だけで私に乾杯をしてください*2
  そうしたら私も、目であなたに祝杯を差し上げます。
それか、杯の中にさえ口づけを残してくれれば
  私にはワインなどいりません。
魂からこみ上げてくる渇きは
  神聖な酒を求めるのですから。
ですが、たとえジュピターの神酒*3をすすることが叶うとしても
  あなたの杯と代えたりなどいたしません。
あなたに近頃、バラのリースをお贈りましたのは
  あなたを讃えようとしたからと言うより、
あなたの元でなら、バラにも枯れることが
  無いという希望を持たせられると思ったからです*4
ですがあなたは、バラに吐息を吐き掛けただけで
  私に送り返されました。
誓って申しましょう、それ以来バラが芳しく育つとき
  それはバラではなく、あなたの香りがするのです*5

 

 原文

www.poetryfoundation.org

 

 ジョニー・キャッシュによる演奏(1:00から始まります)*6。暖かく優しい歌声がとても心地よい。

www.youtube.com

 

<註と鑑賞>

*1:この有名な抒情詩の詩行はギリシアソフィストであるフィロストラトス(c. 170/172-247/250)による5つの別々の散文の翻訳のパッチワークである。

*2:恋人に乾杯を捧げるというのは伝統である。目で乾杯をすることの意味までいちいち註をつけるのは野暮というものだろう。

*3:ネクターのこと。ギリシア神話の神々が天上で飲む酒で、飲めば不老不死になると言う。ところで原文のJoveはジュピターのことを意味するが、当時のイングランドでは検閲を避けるためGod、つまりヤハウェ、の代わりに使われることも多かった語である

*4:個人的にはバラの花を愛のメタファーとして読みたい

*5:シリアの吐息を受けただけで、愛のバラは彼にとって永遠に育ちつづけるものとなった。だが、彼女の吐息の理由は何だろう? 吐息を掛けて送り返すのは一体どういうことだろうか? ところで、この詩全体からはとても優しく、暖かい印象を受ける。脚韻はa-b-c-b-a-b-c-b-d-e-f-e-d-e-f-eとなっていて、これも優しい響きを持ち耳に心地よい。この詩では男性が女性に思いを伝えているが、女性はずっと沈黙したままだ。その上、彼を愛してはいないようにも思われる。果たしてシリアは、この至上の恋愛詩を聞いたあと、彼の愛を受け入れるのだろうか?

*6:パブなどで広く演奏されることになったこの音楽は18世紀に作曲された。作曲者不詳。